Thursday, January 1, 2009

Economics & Crime

Many sociologists and other criminal justice theorists think that bad economic times cause crime to rise, but in one area, where an effective policing program—broken windows policing pioneered by the current LA police chief when he was in New York and the then New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani—has been in effect for several years; crime has gone down during rough economic times, as this article from the Los Angeles Times notes.

The idea that crime comes from social structure changes is essentially a Marxist approach that has done a lot to harm criminal justice research and nothing to help the process of criminal rehabilitation; which only occurs when individual criminals make an internal decision to transform their lives.

Read about broken windows policing from an earlier blog.

An excerpt from the LA Times article.

“Despite a reeling economy, crime in Los Angeles and many other parts of Southern California fell in 2008 for the sixth consecutive year, challenging the widely held theory that crime rises at times of economic tumult.

“The continued decline, while less pronounced than in previous years, comes even as other major American cities, including New York and Chicago, have seen increases in some crimes, notably homicides.

“Violent crimes -- such as homicides and rapes -- and crimes involving thefts in Los Angeles were down about 2.5% through Saturday compared with the same period of 2007, according to Los Angeles Police Department figures. The L.A. County Sheriff's Department, which handles law enforcement for dozens of other cities, reported a 6% drop in such crimes committed through the end of November. In all, the declines amounted to about 8,500 fewer serious crimes committed in 2008.

“Throughout the region, crime was generally down or stagnant. The Orange County Sheriff's Department, which serves unincorporated areas and 12 cities, saw serious crime drop slightly. In Santa Ana, the county's largest city, there was a rise in homicides, but overall violent and property crimes dropped nearly 10%. Likewise, the city of San Bernardino had 7% fewer crimes through last month and the city of San Diego was projected to finish the year with a modest downturn.

“The numbers are striking in part because some law enforcement officials -- notably Sheriff Lee Baca -- predicted a year ago that the ailing economy would probably result in crime spikes, particularly in struggling neighborhoods where unemployment was on the rise. Unemployment in Los Angeles County is now near 9%. But the rise in crime has not materialized.

“Baca and other law enforcement officials said it still may just be a matter of time.

"Expectation of having more crime occur in dire economic times is practical expectation that has been evident from other cycles of depressed times," Baca said. "We aren't experiencing real hard economic times yet. In my opinion we have to prepare ourselves that things could get worse."

“The last time the U.S. economy faltered over a prolonged period, Los Angeles fared badly. In 1991 and 1992, crime soared to levels roughly three times the current figures. At the time, the unemployment rate in the city hovered between 8% and 10% and the crack cocaine epidemic was in full swing. The population also had a higher percentage of young males, who are most likely to commit crimes. Crime rose significantly in Orange County at the time as well.

“The number of homicides in the city of Los Angeles, a bellwether crime statistic watched closely by police and the public, continued to fall in 2008. With four days left in the year, 376 people had been killed -- 24 fewer than in the same period the year before. The total marks a 27% drop from the 517 people slain five years ago and is far below the peak of 1,092 killings the city recorded in 1992.

“The drop in violence is due, in part, to the LAPD's success in reducing gang-related crimes. Gang killings are down more than a quarter from the previous year, and the number of assaults by suspected gang members are down significantly as well.

“The LAPD's success stemming the bloodshed in the nation's second largest city stands out in a year in which other major urban centers saw homicide figures climb. New York City had 513 killings through last week, a nearly 5% increase over last year. Chicago suffered a more pronounced upsurge in violence, with 479 homicides through November, a 17% jump.

“That Los Angeles' lower numbers come after months of severe economic turmoil is especially satisfying for Police Chief William J. Bratton. He has long feuded with criminologists over the effect police have on crime rates. Academics have criticized the chief harshly, dismissing his vehement claim that police, more than any other factor, drive crime up or down. They argue that, although cops may have some effect, they are powerless to counter larger forces such as a spiraling economy or drug epidemics that can push people to desperation.”